What do you think of when you hear the words tree protection or tree preservation? I start by thinking about what makes common sense and then I start to think like an arborist.
Over the years of inspecting trees I’ve noticed a few definitions of tree preservation people might use:
There are a lot of variables to consider while planning and designing a project with the trees in mind. After consulting with some of our clients over the years, many have held off on a house addition to avoid damaging or worse, removing, their tree.
Here are some things to consider when attempting to preserve your trees:
I like to think of tree protection as soil protection. Here is a list of things that can be done before and after construction damage to reduce stress on a tree and the soil around it:
When in doubt, talk to an arborist. There are techniques that can be implemented to reduce stress on the tree for future construction work to be done.
Have you ever wondered how it’s all connected? I wonder all the time! The reason I focus on mushrooms is that I’ve found mushrooms to be integral to the health of trees and soils. I’ve also discovered a beneficial purpose for some of the mushrooms that are supposedly harmful to trees. I see these “harmful” mushrooms everywhere, and yet they appear to live harmoniously with the trees instead of killing or damaging them.
Two weeks ago while riding my bike around Richmond, I noticed ringless honey mushroom, Armillaria tabescens, all over the woods. I guess technically I didn’t slow down enough to properly identify the mushroom, but this is what I believe I was seeing. If you research Armillaria you’ll find it’s a wood-rotting fungus that kills trees. I think Armillaria is everywhere in our woods and soil and only takes over stressed or dead trees, just like other diseases and insects.
Interesting Fact: An Armillaria species was measured in 1998 and determined to be the largest living organism in the world. Researchers measured the mycelium of the mushroom underground and, it was said to encompass 1,665 football fields. I am not going to discuss how they measured it so you will have to look that up if you are interested. But if you didn’t know already, there is a network of mycelium under our feet in soil, in our yard, and in the woods.
Mycelium is basically the vegetative body of a mushroom that you rarely see and is below the ground. The small fruit body part we see above the ground (the mushroom) is the sexual reproduction part of a mushroom. The mushroom releases spores. These spores are single cells and they float around in the air and lay around on the ground, or other substrate, to reproduce and produce hyphae. When two compatible hyphae meet, they create mycelium. Mycelium spreads throughout the soil and creates symbiotic relationships with the roots of many trees and plants.
When was the last time you went for a walk or bike ride intent on discovering mushrooms? Did you take any pictures and leave the mushroom “as is” for the next walker or biker? How about walking around your yard to see how many you can find or look for the smallest mushrooms? I personally have my radar on for mushrooms when I drive, walk, run and ride… but most of the time I seem to be too busy to slow down or stop to have a closer look.
This weekend I went out for a few long rides around Henrico, Hanover, and the City of Richmond to find Honey Mushrooms, but they were gone. I couldn’t find any to identify. I know their network of mycelium was still there but the fruiting bodies were absent. I’m sure there are some out there still, but they were not on my bike path.
While hunting for mushrooms, it’s easy to get sidetracked by all types of living organisms. The interconnectedness amongst plants, birds and insects become increasingly apparent and often times mesmerizing.
Throughout this article are pictures of mushrooms that were recently found, photographed and left for the next person or animal to enjoy.
Sometimes I feel like a detective while reading the description for my next arborist appointment. As soon as I get out of my car I start to gather clues. Most every tree or property I inspect daily are full of problems that need to be identified and hopefully solved. Here are 5 examples of what I have seen in the past two weeks…
My Pine Tree has Borers
My Oak Tree Has Curled Leaves
The Leaves on my Holly Tree are Black
The Trunk of my Tree is Diseased and Black
My Tree is Dropping Sticky Sap on my Deck
Sometimes I have to remind myself to appreciate the wonderful experiences I get to enjoy as an Arborist here in Richmond, Virginia. Below are just a few of the benefits that I experience each day:
My goal in writing this is to remind you how wonderful the plant world is around us and how fortunate we are, if we slow down and use our senses, to experience the trees and the plants and all they have to offer.
This past Friday I took a vacation day and rode my bike from my house in Henrico Co. to Pocahontas State Park for an overnight solo campout. The ride to Pocahontas was long — 70 miles along gravel roads, alleyways, and backroads paralleling I-95 south, to Henricus Park and Dutch Gap Conservation Area before heading west to Pocahontas. So what does this have to do with trees? Well, here are some things I observed:
Last but not least, I saw lots of signs on my journey that spring is almost here. So get outside and enjoy them. Smell the flowers as they bloom and get some Vitamin D!
As an Arborist here in Richmond, I have seen a lot of trees and I have seen a lot of ways people have unknowingly damaged, stressed and even killed their trees. So I thought I would give you 10 tips to help save or NOT kill your tree.
This list could go on and on, but I hope this will help you before your next project at your house or work. Trees can get very old and can handle a lot of stress, but too much stress and damage can cause them to decline and eventually die.
Tree identification has been a hobby of mine for over 20 years. There are multiple ways to identify trees — leaf shape, leaf color, bark color, bark texture, distinct buds, fruit, orientation of branches (opposite or alternate), tree form, tree location in the woods, and even TASTE.
The 7 species listed below are deciduous (loose their leaves in the winter) trees and one shrub that can be easily identified by smell:
Warning and Tree Care: First there are many trees that have a lot of poison ivy growing up the trunks here in Richmond. The poison ivy vine can grow off the trunk of a tree to look like a branch (know how to ID poison ivy). Lastly, we don’t want everyone out there on the trails or on street trees breaking off a lot of branches and limbs just to smell the tree. The technique I use is to take a branch (still on the tree) and use my finger nail to scratch the bark until you see the green on the limbs and SMELL (and taste!).
I’ve always wanted to try to make my own wild soda and wild fermented beer from berries that I found in the woods, using their native yeast to get the process going.
So what or who has inspired me to think about fermentation? First is the book The Wildcrafting Brewer by Pascal Baudar. Another is Tabol Brewing here in Richmond where I believe most of their beers are made with wild yeast they have collected. And another would be making my own sauerkraut with my wife.
Most fruits in the wild, like blackberry (still around right now), huckleberry (might find a few huckleberries around still in Richmond; they look like blueberries but actually are huckleberries), blueberries and eastern red cedar (they have berries) are all loaded with wild yeast. The cedar tree has berries that are actually not berries but really a fleshy cone. And speaking of eastern red cedar, it’s actually a juniper (Juniperus virginiana).
Tree on left is a male eastern red cedar and the one on the right is a female.
The blueish color you see on the cedar berries is called glaucous or glaucous bloom which is a covering of native yeast on the fleshy cone. Do you know any other fruits with a cloudy grayish or bluish color on their skin? (How about grapes, blueberry, and plums.)
So, if you look at your window right now or take a walk in your neighborhood, go and look for the disturbed areas that are unmowed or left untouched (edges of woods, right of ways, fields, etc.) and I bet you’ll find some eastern red cedars. So you found a cedar that doesn’t have berries? Not all of them do. Cedar trees are dioecious, which means that they have either female parts (berries (fleshy cones) in cedar) or they are male (small cones that produce a lot of pollen in the spring). Monoecious are trees that have both male and female productive organs; for example, if you have an oak tree, you get the pollen in the spring from the catkins and then later in the year the same tree will produce acorns.
So I’m setting off to go and harvest my berries. I had been on two long bike rides this weekend and saw piles of cedar trees full of berries. I told my wife on this day that I’m off for a bike ride to get some cedar berries. As I’m walking out my door, I’m thinking that although I’d love to get on my bike, I’m sure I can walk to find what I am looking for. I know the cedar in my front has never produced any berries (because it’s a male cedar) but then I start thinking I have power lines behind my house so I decided to walk down my yard to look for berries. Fifteen-feet off my deck I find my first cedar with berries. Another 20-feet, another cedar then into the back power lines I find more.
Close up picture of the fleshy cones on female eastern red cedar
All the fruit (the fleshy cone) I harvested had the glaucous bloom on them so I am hopeful I will get my soda soon. When these fruits mature in fall I hear they can be dried and used as a spice or flavoring. The distinct flavor in gin is from juniper berries. Also, I read that you can use juniper berries to help make a sourdough starter. So, I took my handful of juniper berries and added them to a 1 part sugar to 3 parts filtered water solution to feed the yeast and get the fermentation started. I also used a Ball jar with an airlock lid to let gasses release but also to keep bad bacteria out of my starter.
Fresh eastern red cedar in sugar starter with airlock top.
Why do I run around and collect wild foods and nibble on plants everywhere I go while I ride or walk? I want to reintroduce my body and more specifically my gut biome to wild bacteria and yeast you only find in the woods and in nature (it can not be found in a store or a bottle). I want to eat and breathe as much diversity as I can and visit as many diverse environments in the wildlands here in the RVA. This journey to gut health made me realize how important healthy soils are for our trees too.
So what else did I find on my ride this past weekend?
Peach trees in lawns
Pear trees in lawns
And one of my favorite mushrooms: Chicken of the Woods
Until next time. See you in the woods!
Over the past few weeks, there has been a lot of rain. For me, this means more walking and less riding my bike in the woods. During my most recent walk, I noticed a lot of mushrooms popping up from the forest floor.
When many people and even most arborists see mushrooms on the ground they often think they are bad or something is wrong with the soil and that something needs to be done. They may even think that a spray or fungicide is needed to get rid of the mushroom.
In contrast, when I see mushrooms my mind starts to travel deep into the soil and I think of the miles of mycelium that are under my feet, and I think healthy soil.
Mycelium is basically the vegetative body of a mushroom that you never see and is below the ground. The small fruit body part we see above the ground (the Mushroom) is the sexual reproductive part of a mushroom. The mushroom releases spores. These spores are single cells, and they float around in the air and lay around on the ground or some other substrate to reproduce and produce hyphae. When two compatible hyphae meet they create mycelium. Mycelium spreads throughout the soil and creates symbiotic relationships with the roots of many trees and plants. Some have termed these mycelium networks in the soil as the information superhighway or the “Wood Wide Web.” These mycelium networks can link the roots of different plants so they can share nutrients and information. Paul Stamets called them “Earth’s Natural Internet”
When there is a beneficial relationship with mycelium and tree roots we call that mycorrhiza or mycorrhizal fungal associations. These benefits include water absorption, nutrient uptake, resistance to disease and pathogens, and increased plant health and stress tolerance. All the tree has to do is release some carbohydrates from its root system and the mycelium give the trees what they need.
Without good mycorrhiza in the soil a tree may not survive or thrive.
So, what else is so special about mycelium? Here are just a few examples to look up and enjoy!
Cleaning up toxic waste
There are some mushrooms that cause damage or weaken trees and should be observed or monitored closely by a Certified Arborist. Feel free to call.
P.S. This list below could be very very long, but I suggest starting here on your mushroom education journey.
Below you will find the Lactarius indigo mushroom that I harvested and ate.
Disclaimer: “do not eat any wild plants, herbs, trees, mushrooms until you have verified with your health professional that they are safe for you; these articles are for inspiration and entertainment. No liability exists against Truetimber Arborists, Peter Girardi, or Urban Forest Dweller or anyone who works or volunteers for us; nor can they be held responsible for any allergy, illness, or injurious effect that any person or animal may suffer as a result of information in these articles or website or through using any of the plants, trees, mushrooms, or things mentioned”
Last Friday I was riding my bike on a breezy day in the Southside of Richmond, heading from my office to the Dogwood Dell area where I had parked my car earlier. As I cruised along the road with my head down in the wind, I saw the sidewalk up ahead blocked by leafy branches with red and mostly black fruit. I could see from over 100 yards away that it was a mulberry tree with ripe fruit.
I hopped the curb and stopped under the shade of the tree and started to eat the darkest fruit I could find (there’s evidence that unripe mulberry fruit can cause digestive problems). Some I grabbed with my hand. Others I just ate right off the branch. This is a fruit that will leave evidence on your hands, your mouth, and your teeth. With my purple teeth, I smiled at a young man walking down the sidewalk. He did a double take. I think he was laughing at me.
I got back on my bike, and when I was near an apartment complex I saw two kids with a plastic bowl collecting mulberries. A few more miles down the street a young woman was reaching up into another mulberry tree in an empty lot collecting fruit. They must have been calling us to eat them!
I guess since we are talking about mulberry trees, we should talk about the different mulberry trees you’ll find here in Richmond: red mulberry (Morus rubra), white mulberry (Morus alba), and paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera)… have fun looking them up.
The fruit on the mulberry is technically not a true berry. It’s actually an aggregate of very small fruits called drupes. Other drupe fruits include peaches, plums and cherries. True berry fruits include blueberries, cranberries, grapes, and tomatoes.
Here are a few nutritional facts that I found on a quick internet search, on Dr. Mercola’s website:
Here is another mulberry comment I found in a book titled Identifying and Harvesting Edible and Medicinal Plants by “Wildman” Steve Brill:
So what else have I seen out there while on my bike over the past few weeks that may or may not be edible or have some medicinal use (I actually didn’t sample or eat any of these listed below):
Oh, and by the way: mulberry salad is delicious!
Foray RVA are my stories of walks, bike rides and adventures in the Richmond area while searching for edible plants and fungi. These experiences may include but are not limited to: recipes, tree identification, experiments with wild edibles, and generally the good, the bad and the ugly of my encounters in the urban forest.
I started exploring edible plants over 25 years ago, so I’m not new to it, but I’m also not an expert. Although I am relatively confident in my identification of trees, plants, and mushrooms, I am very aware I could make a mistake. So I’m not going to put a ton of time researching my articles since there are thousands of pages on “The Google” that can help give you more detailed information. Another note of caution: these are not your common foods bought at your local grocery store. Who knows, you just may be allergic to the same plants I have eaten and about which I am writing.
(Disclaimer: Sorry but I have to do this: Do not eat any wild plants, herbs, trees, mushrooms until you have verified with your health professional that they are safe for you; these articles are for inspiration and entertainment. No liability exists against Truetimber Arborists, Peter Girardi, or Urban Forest Dweller or anyone who works or volunteers for us. Nor can they be held responsible for any allergy, illness, or injurious effect that any person or animal may suffer as a result of information in this article or through using any of the plants, trees, mushrooms, or other items mentioned.)
This Foray was inspired by viewing photos from a year ago where I made a homemade wine from Elaeagnus fruit. The fruit I collected was most likely Silverthorn (Elaeagnus pungens), a plant closely related to Russian olive and Autumn olive.
Unfortunately I let the wine sit too long and instead of drinking it when it was ready, it became too sour (some would say it “went bad’). During the process of aging (rotting) I had some of the wine and it was OK, but not very great. The Elaeagnus species are considered an invasive species so most people spend a lot of time and money removing this shrub before it takes over the native flora; well I went back to the same spot this year for more fruit to try my skills at wine again and all I found were freshly removed browning shrubs and stumps; I’m sad but I guess I’m also glad.
The actual motivation for the Foray today was to find Garlic Mustard (Alliaria petiolata) which I had seen during my bike rides over the past few weeks and which, if you didn’t know, is an invasive species. I had only nibbled on garlic mustard before and never harvested any large amounts of it or cooked it at home. I heard stories of friends harvesting this plant to make a pesto. So, this was my chance to try and report on my harvest. I felt like it was getting a little on the late side of harvest, so I knew I needed to act quickly. I’m pretty sure you can walk along most any road or trail near the river and find this plant. Right now the plant is upright about 18-24 inches tall with white flowers. It’s usually found growing in a group. I harvested about two large handfuls of the smaller leaves and younger stem of this plant (below) and tried to saute it in a pan with butter.
I’ll say the raw leaves had more flavor, and I definitely didn’t succeed at cooking this plant this time (probably too much salt). But it’s not too late to try to make pesto.
In the picture above you can see a few other plants and mushrooms I found during my Foray. For simplicity and for comparison I attempted to cook all the items separately in a large frying pan with grass-fed butter, some extra virgin olive oil, and sea salt.
The American basswood (Tilia americana) is the American version of the European Linden tree (Tilia sps.) which is a very common street tree, an ornamental tree here in Richmond and across the country. Be aware of possible pesticides that could be on this tree before tasting the leaves, buds or flowers. It is common to find heavy populations of aphids on this tree which is why it sometimes will be sprayed by commercial tree and lawn service companies. But also “bee” aware: New regulations restrict the timing of any pesticide on these trees when the tree is in flower or about to flower to reduce the risk of bees dying from the pesticides being in the flowers nectar and/or pollen.
So, I tried the raw small leaves of the basswood this weekend and kept chewing on the sweet nutritious young leaf and noticed a little bit of mucilaginous reaction similar to that of an okra but not as much. I also tried to fry the leaves in butter/olive oil and actually I think these leaves would do better raw in a salad.
Pheasant’s Back mushroom or Dryad’s Saddle mushroom (Polyporus squamosus)
Stinging nettle (above)
In this picture, you can see there were more flowers than ice. When I do it again I will use fewer flowers.
Use redbud flowers as decorations if you want to add a little design to your cake next spring. The cake above was made by my two daughters. It was beautiful and soooo good.
I’ve always wanted to try the pods (the young fruit) of the redbud. They look like snow peas, and I’ve read that the fruit is tasty when eaten young and tender. Well, these were not very tasty. I think I will try again when they get a little larger to see if they get less bitter and have more flavor.
So, this was round one of my Foray RVA articles. Just thought I would share the mistakes I made this past weekend when harvesting and cooking these plants:
The soil food web is essentially a healthy and functional soil that is living with bacteria, algae, fungi, and protozoa, as well as more complex nematodes and micro-arthropods — and the sometimes visible earthworms, insects and small vertebrates. The soil food web is living soil and not dead soil, aka dirt.
These living organisms in the soil can convert silt, clay, sand, rocks and organic matter into available nutrients for our trees. Trees will also help feed these organisms with exudates (soluble sugars, amino acids and other compounds secreted by roots; these are produced from the sun and photosynthesis). Actually the trees and plants can send signals to these living organisms in the soil that indicate the nutrients the trees and plants need.
So what does a healthy soil do?
What does dead or unhealthy soil, aka dirt, look like or do?
Above picture: four-foot rod easily pushed into healthy soil
What does healthy soil look like?
Healthy soil EQUALS healthy tree… similarly like a healthy gut EQUALS healthy human
What can you do to help your soil?